Egypt Khemitology

The Hidden History Of Egypt: Khemitology

(Read the article on one page)

Egypt is currently in the news, and not for the most pleasant of reasons. Political disturbances are being felt in isolated pockets of the country, yet are clearly overblown by western media, and some foreign governments. But this land, and especially the fertile areas that border the Nile River has been a vital part of human history for thousands of years. From the rise of Islam in the 7 th century AD, and back through the Coptic Christians, Jews, Romans, Greeks, Persians and finally the so called dynastic Egyptians, each successive dominant culture has left their mark.

The clearest evidence of this is in the stone constructions they left behind. And it is through the study of these works that we can see the level of technology each culture had, through what tools they used. Limestone is and has been in great abundance in the country, especially near Cairo, due to the laying down of sedimentary deposits millions of years ago. In fact, the famous Giza plateau is more or less a massive outcrop of limestone.

Both the Romans and Greeks had the use of steel, and thus could shape limestone with ease, as well as marble. However, the archaeological record shows us that the dynastic Egyptians worked with mainly bronze tools, such as chisels, as well as stone hammers. These would have been fine for the shaping of limestone, as in the columns and flat surfaces which make up many of the palaces and temples that we think of as dynastic achievements.

Limestone averages 3 to 4 on the Mohs scale, which is an indication of the ability of harder minerals and materials to scratch softer ones. And bronze has a similar hardness, depending on what has been added to the copper base. The first bronze in any appreciable quantities was in use in Egypt starting in the 4 th dynasty (2613 to 2494 B.C.) and this coincided, as most Egyptologists would have it, with the building of the three pyramids at Giza.

Egypt KhemitologyThe stone often used for hammers and other tools was usually diorite, which has a hardness of 7, on average, on the Mohs scale. It was mainly in the form of ball shaped pounders which were used to strike the limestone as a way of removing material. And, flat stones could be employed, along with silica sand slurry to act as an early sanding process.

It is commonly believed that iron, let alone steel did not appear in appreciable quantities until at least the 8 th century BC in Egypt, brought in by traders from lands farther to the east. So how was the harder stone shaped?

In order to shape stone, or wood, or practically any solid material, there is one simple principle; the tool material has to be as hard or harder than the material being worked. Also, a power tool, that which is energized by electricity, water or some other force tends to remove material faster and more efficiently than a tool operated solely by hand. As well, powered instruments tend to be more accurate in their execution than those which are solely human operated and energized.

This then leads to a true conundrum when we look, for example, at some of the shaped surfaces on the Giza plateau, because here, and many engineers can attest to this, we find evidence of the use of machine powered saws in deep antiquity. In order to get into any real depth about this, I will refer to the research of two great contemporary men, Stephen Mehler and Christopher Dunn, both of whom I traveled with in Egypt in April 2013.

Stephen Mehler is an oral tradition specialist and author of ancient Egyptian knowledge; much of his tutelage came from his relationship with Abd’El Hakim Awyan. The latter was an Egyptian tour guide and indigenous wisdom keeper. Christopher Dunn is a master machinist, born and raised in England who moved to the United States and worked in high technology establishments which make, for example, specialized parts for jet engines.

Conventional Egyptology has a tendency to either ignore, or insufficiently try to explain the machined saw marks I witnessed, as well as obvious examples of high speed core drills having been at work at such sites as Abu Sir, Abu Ghurob, and the Giza plateau. The important point is that the saw marks and drill holes that I and others have seen, in profusion in these and other areas were not so much in soft limestone, but in far harder rock like basalt, granite and diorite.

Comments

I'm not sure about the carvings of the rose quartz v's the limestone. Surely if the rose quartz is harder and therefore required more advanced tools pre dynastic and the rose quartz last longer....there would be many more carved rose quartz artifacts?? Yet the limestone ones seem to be everywhere. Something does not add up. I notice all the ( or nearly all) of the rose quartz carvings are of people or obelisks on, bar the pyramids. Yet there are buildings etc in limestone. If the better technology existed before the pharonic dynasties why do we not see more stuctures??? I also am interested in the pyramid being aligned to the polaris originally theory. Purely from a spiritual point ( and not saying this is in anyway fact- just a passing thought) could the rose quartz staues of pharoahs be the original builders of pyramids? I'm really interested in the positioning of the pyramids, their purpose and builders. If some current claims are accurate these structures could be over 50,000 years old which gives a very real and significant change to thinking on all levels. I'd be interested to hear any feedback or other thoughts. Regards.

This alien-civilizations-helping-humans thing is pretty much the same attitude as calling "magic" or "miracle" the observations that we have not been able to explain scientifically.

I'm glad you made this point. When someone credits aliens to some ancient accomplishment, it's the same as when previous generations credited the creation of something they couldn't explain to demons, angels, or gods. It simply means that we don't know how it could have been done, so aliens or gods basically equals a big question mark.

This has nothing to do with this story. But i just wanted to tell people that i just recived my 1st free gift from this site and i just love it!!!!

Oh yeah...drill marks, saw marks, pits for giants saw, all this has been found all over the world at numerous sites, Egypt is just one of many. South America has stones cut with laser precision and other sites with saw marks and tool marks. Not to mention walls built without mortar and the grooves are so tight that no light or paper can pass through. I have said this before but people of ancient times were not dumb, perhaps they were even smarter than we are becuase even today with all of our advances and superior technologu (hmm mmh) we can duplicate what they did then.

Pages

Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.

Top New Stories

Virtual recreation by Charles Chipiez. A panoramic view of the gardens and outside of the Palace of Darius I of Persia in Persepolis.
Once the stunning capital of the Persian Empire (also known as the Achaemenid Empire), Persepolis was lost to the world for almost nineteen hundred years, buried in the dirt of southwestern Iran until the 17th century. Founded in 518 BC by Darius I of the Persian Empire, Persepolis (called Parsa by the native Persians) lasted only a mere two hundred years despite the grandeur Darius and his followers abundantly heaped on its construction. Notwithstanding Persepolis’ tragic end, what remains of the Persian citadel is astounding.

Myths & Legends

The Smelliest Women of Ancient Greece: Jason and the Argonauts Get Fragrant
We all know Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love and beauty, made sure that she was worshipped by punishing those who ignored her altars. One brief appearance of this wrath in the tale of Jason and the Argonauts turned into a particularly fragrant episode.

Ancient Places

Inside one of the tunnels under Valetta, Malta.
Hordes of tourists visit the Mediterranean island of Malta each year to enjoy the above ground attractions the country has to offer such as breath-taking sandy beaches, historical buildings, and traditional cuisine. Yet, there is also a subterranean world hidden beneath the island’s surface. These are the rumored secret tunnels of Malta.

Our Mission

At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.

The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe.

We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives.

By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. 

Ancient Image Galleries

View from the Castle Gate (Burgtor). (Public Domain)
Door surrounded by roots of Tetrameles nudiflora in the Khmer temple of Ta Phrom, Angkor temple complex, located today in Cambodia. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Cable car in the Xihai (West Sea) Grand Canyon (CC BY-SA 4.0)
Next article